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Jul 11, 2023
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Best BCAA Supplements for Women, Men, Weight Loss, and More

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It’s the day after your workout, and your muscles are sore and easily fatigued. You search the internet for something that can help support your recovery and come across branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Amino acids are the foundational building blocks for the macronutrient we all know and love: protein. There are twenty amino acids in total, with nine…
The post Best BCAA Supplements for Women, Men, Weight Loss, and More appeared first on Breaking Muscle.

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It’s the day after your workout, and your muscles are sore and easily fatigued. You search the internet for something that can help support your recovery and come across branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs).

Amino acids are the foundational building blocks for the macronutrient we all know and love: protein. There are twenty amino acids in total, with nine considered essential – meaning that we have to consume them since our body does not naturally make them. Three of the essential amino acids are the BCAAs l-leucine, l-isoleucine, and l-valine, which are called branch-chain amino acids due to their molecular structure.

Research has shown that adequate BCAA intake can possibly decrease the risk of developing cancer and diabetes, increase muscle mass, decrease muscle fatigue, and reduce muscle soreness. (1)(2) If you are tired of searching for the best branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) to bolster your fitness routine, look no further. In this review, we’ll dig deeper into BCAAs, discuss our top eight picks, and leave you well-informed to make the best decision.

Medical disclaimer: This article is intended for educational and informational purposes only. It is not intended as a substitute for medical advice. For health advice, contact a licensed healthcare provider.

Our Top Picks for the Best BCAA Supplements

Best BCAAs for Women: Transparent Labs BCAA Glutamine


Transparent Labs BCAA Glutamine

  • Number of servings: 30
  • Price per serving: $1.33
  • Amount of BCAAs per serving: Eight grams
  • Calories per serving: Less than 40
  • Flavors: Blue Raspberry, Sour Green Apple, Strawberry Lemonade, Tropical Punch 
  • Third-party tested: Analytical Resource Laboratories Certified; Elite Manufacturing & Packaging Third-Party Tested


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Pros

  • Easily and thoroughly mixes into a variety of liquids – very soluble 
  • No artificial sweeteners, colors, or artificial flavors 
  • Each scoop has research-backed clinical doses of BCAAs

Cons

  • Some reviewers report the flavor is more tart than other BCAA supplements they’ve tried

When you search “Best BCAA for women,” you’ll be inundated with a long list of supplement products, but we have deemed Transparent Labs’ BCAA Glutamine supplement powder the best BCAA powder for our female strength trainers due to the addition of unique ingredients like l-glutamine. You’ll find an impressive five grams of glutamine per scoop of this BCAA powder, which can help your concentration and performance in the gym. One research study investigation found that female basketball players who supplemented with l-glutamine improved their reaction time and goal-shooting accuracy. (3)

Raise your hand if you’ve dealt with annoying skin issues (I’m raising mine by the way). Transparent Labs BCAA Glutamine contains coconut water that has been linked to skin health improvement, a nice bonus for us female gym-goers who want to keep our complexions looking bright and healthy. (4)

This third-party verified product has nothing to hide. The company prides itself on delivering a product that is 100% natural – we did some digging and this BCAA supplement is as natural as they come. There aren’t any artificial sweeteners, dyes, or preservatives.

“Transparent” is a great name for this company, as the amounts of every ingredient are listed on the label. It can be difficult to find products that list every ingredient used, right down to the milligram. When you review the supplement label, you’ll see that Transparent Labs BCAA Glutamine offers four grams of leucine and two grams each of valine and isoleucine, totaling an incredible eight grams of BCAAs per scoop. This is a higher amount than most other BCAA supplements currently offer.

Furthermore, Transparent Labs BCAA Glutamine offers clinically effective doses of each individual amino acid. For example, evidence-based research supports the daily consumption of at least 2.5 grams of leucine for improved muscle function and grip strength. (5)

Best BCAAs for Men: Jacked Factory BCAA Powder


Jacked Factory BCAA Powder

  • Number of servings: 30
  • Price per serving: $0.60 to $0.67
  • Amount of BCAAs per serving: Six grams 
  • Calories per serving: Less than 30
  • Flavors: Blue Raspberry, Fruit Punch, Unflavored
  • Third-party tested: cGMP-certified


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Pros

  • Made in the USA in a cGMP-certified facility
  • Manufactured without fillers, artificial food dyes, or added sugars
  • Very affordable compared to other powders on the market

Cons

  • Many reviewers are unhappy with the unflavored option and report it as difficult to drink

If you are looking for a cGMP-certified BCAA product made in the good ole USA, we’ve got you covered. While Jacked Factory’s BCAA powder does have artificial sweetening from sucralose, it also holds another ingredient that is gaining attention for its substantial health benefits: spirulina. This algae plays a role in oxidative stress reduction and acts as an anti-inflammatory. (6) These two physiological roles are linked to potentially decreasing the risk of developing cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. (6) This is important for men to keep in mind since they are more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes and obesity, in particular, than their female counterparts. (7)

Another advantage that men who strength train will be happy to hear is that spirulina also has been positively correlated with treating and reducing muscle cramps. (6) It’s a no-brainer why users are pleased with how quickly their bodies respond to this BCAA supplement and its ingredient combination.

Do we get bonus points if we tell you that the Jacked Factory BCAA Powder is one of the most affordable branched-chain amino acid products we’ve reviewed? For only 60 to 67 cents a scoop on Amazon, you will get three grams of leucine, 1.5 grams of valine, and 1.5 grams of iso-leucine.

RELATED: Best Collagen Supplements for Men, Women, Weight Loss, and More

Best Tasting BCAAs: Cellucor Alpha Amino


Cellucor Alpha Amino

  • Number of servings: 30
  • Price per serving: $0.93
  • Amount of BCAAs per serving: 5 grams 
  • Calories per serving: Less than 25
  • Flavors: Fruit Punch, Icy Blue Razz, Watermelon
  • Third-party tested: Not at the time of this writing


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Pros

  • Low-carbohydrate choice with zero sugar added
  • Made with an electrolyte blend 
  • The majority of users report easy digestibility

Cons

  • Manufactured with artificial sweeteners and artificial food dyes 
  • Contains phenylalanine – avoid this product if you have phenylketonuria

You’ll find that this supplement is limited to only three flavors. However, you won’t want to put down what Cellucor Alpha Amino brings to the table. We’re big fans of the watermelon flavor. It mixes easily with plain water, so you don’t have to worry about adding any extra calories. This powder is not offered in an unflavored option, which may be an issue for those who like to mix their BCAA and flavored post-workout recovery shake.

Cellucor Alpha Amino has artificial sweeteners and food dyes, so you may want to avoid it if you’re sensitive to these ingredients. However, it does offer a potent electrolyte blend to aid in your exercise recovery by preventing dehydration and muscle cramping.

A portion of this BCAA powder is made up of betaine. Betaine consumption is correlated with improved endurance, body composition, and muscle mass. (8) It is also known for naturally lowering homocysteine levels in the body. (8) Homocysteine is an amino acid that is linked to the development of blood clots and heart disease, and its levels tend to increase during acute and high-volume exercises. (9)

In addition to tasting great, this supplement offers support for your workout with a proprietary blend of 14 different amino acids. One of the amino acids you’ll find in it is citrulline. Citrulline increases the production of ATP in your muscles while you perform aerobic exercises. (10)

So what does that mean for you? Increased ATP production leads to decreased lactic acid settling into your muscles, which means you could have a smoother recovery if you supplement with this product. (10) The price is a reasonable $27.99 per tub of 30 servings. For those who subscribe, you can save an additional 30% and get free shipping.

Best BCAAs for Muscle Growth: Huge Supplements BCAA


Huge Supplements BCAA

  • Number of servings: 25
  • Price per serving: $1.60
  • Amount of BCAAs per serving: Eight grams 
  • Calories per serving: Less than 40
  • Flavors: Bomb Popsicle, Kiwi Blueberry, Sour Grape, Watermelon Lemonade 
  • Third-party tested: cGMP-certified


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Pros

  • Contains a variety of non-essential and essential amino acids 
  • Made in the USA in a cGMP-certified facility
  • Manufactured in an FDA-regulated facility

Cons

  • Many reviews commented that Huge’s customer service department was lacking in professionalism 
  • Sweetened artificially with sucralose

You may have heard of the 2:1:1 ratio for BCAA. But why is it important? Studies have found that having double the amount of leucine than isoleucine and valine can help support the rate at which your muscles recover. (11) In comparison to isoleucine and valine, leucine provides a higher anabolic effect for protein synthesis and therefore supports muscle growth. (11) If you are looking to bulk, consider Huge Supplements BCAAs for your muscle growth needs. Its formula supports this clinically-based dose ratio with a whopping eight grams of BCAAs per scoop.

Huge Supplements’ BCAA powder is USA-manufactured and cGMP-certified, so you can rest assured that you won’t be unintentionally supplementing with ingredients on a banned list for sports. Electrolytes, however, are ingredients you will want onboard for workout recovery. Huge Supplements BCAAs will provide you with 40 milligrams of potassium and 80 milligrams of sodium. This blend may help you stay hydrated since both electrolytes work together to maintain your body’s fluid status.

RELATED: Best Mass Gainers for Bulking Up Fast

Best BCAAs for Recovery: XWERKS Motion


XWERKS Motion

  • Number of servings: 30 
  • Price per serving: $1.63
  • Amount of BCAAs per serving: Three grams 
  • Calories per serving: Less than 130
  • Flavors: Raspberry Lemonade 
  • Third-party tested: Not at the time of this writing


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Pros

  • The ingredient “cluster dextrin” is relatively specific to XWERKS Motion and is backed by clinical research studies 
  • Gluten-free and dairy-free 
  • Shipping is always free

Cons

  • Contains a low amount of BCAAs per serving compared to other supplements on the market 
  • Limited flavor options

If you like the flavor of raspberry lemonade, you’re in luck! Despite its limitation to only one flavor, XWERKS Motion is our top pick for boosting your recovery. You’ll get three grams of BCAAs per scoop. This is relatively low compared to other BCAA supplements in this review. However, XWERKS Motion offers a blend of ingredients that work together to help boost your workout, which other supplements don’t offer.

For example, this supplement provides 28 grams of carbohydrates per serving, with 25 grams being sourced from cluster dextrin. This type of carb digests easily to hit your bloodstream faster. (12) It can help boost your post-workout recovery by repleting glucose stores that you naturally lose during exercise, prolonging the onset of fatigue, and decreasing the cortisol (stress) hormone response. (12)

XWERKS Motion also contains magnesium, which helps your muscles relax after working out. The more you exercise, the more you increase your body’s need for magnesium. XWERKS Motion has you covered by providing 35 milligrams of this electrolyte per scoop.

Best BCAAs for Weight Loss: MyProtein Essential BCAA 2:1:1


MyProtein Buy Essential BCAA 2:1:1 Powder

Number of servings: 31 to 125

Price per serving: $0.44 to $0.55

Amount of BCAAs per serving: Four grams 

Calories per serving: Less than 30 

Flavors: Blue Raspberry, Gummy Fish, Peach Rings, Rainbow Sherbert, Snow Cone, Watermelon 

Third-party tested: ALS Quality Party Accredited, Labdoor Standard Certified, LGC Sport Science Tested, European SPecialist Sport Nutrition Alliance Member, 5-Star Environmental Health Office Rated


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Pros

  • Created with ingredients you can trust – does not contain prohibited substances for athletes 
  • Products are delivered in an eco-friendly compostable box 
  • Many users report this product as very soluble and easy to mix

Cons

  • Made with artificial dyes, gum fillers, and the artificial sweetener sucralose
  • Some users struggled with the artificially sweet taste of this product

If you are looking to lose weight, dietary supplements such as BCAA powders may help. MyProtein’s Essential BCAA 2:1:1 powder has less than 40 calories and only three grams of carbs per scoop. Because of these nutritional facts, we highly recommend it for those who are looking to lose weight through calorie reduction.

Do not let the candy-like flavors fool you into thinking that this product is packed with sugar. It contains sucralose and gum fillers, but this is what allows it to remain low in calories and carbs. Several research studies have discovered a high correlation between the consumption of amino acid metabolites, such as BCAAs, and improved insulin sensitivity. (13) As insulin sensitivity improves, the likelihood of weight maintenance from fat loss increases, along with a reduced risk of obesity. (14)

We really like that this powder comes in a variety of options: 0.5-pound, 1.1-pound, and 2.2-pound bags. This makes shopping more convenient if you like to bulk buy and it is also a feature that is not as common in other BCAA powders.

You might find that this product is difficult to reseal after opening it, as it comes in a bag versus a tub. If you struggle with keeping it closed (and therefore keeping it fresh and free of contamination), consider transferring its contents into a container with a sealed lid for more convenience.

Best BCAAs Powder: Transparent Labs BCAA Glutamine


Transparent Labs BCAA Glutamine

  • Number of servings: 30
  • Price per serving: $1.33
  • Amount of BCAAs per serving: Eight grams
  • Calories per serving: Less than 40
  • Flavors: Blue Raspberry, Sour Green Apple, Strawberry Lemonade, Tropical Punch 
  • Third-party tested: Analytical Resource Laboratories Certified; Elite Manufacturing & Packaging Third-Party Tested


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Pros

  • Gluten-free and non-GMO (Genetically Modified Organism) 
  • Created without the use of artificial preservatives 
  • Contains 1.5 grams of vitamin C as ascorbic acid, five grams of glutamine, and one gram of coconut water powder per scoop
  • Vegan-friendly

Cons

  • Some users remark that the smell of the powder can be overwhelming if not cut well with liquid

You are not having déjà vu – we do have this product listed twice in this review. That should attest to why we have deemed it the best BCAA powder out there. It can not only contribute to the creation of protein in the cells, delayed fatigue, and quick muscle recovery, but you can also trust that it is 100% natural.

A huge benefit of Transparent Labs BCAA Glutamine is its solubility. This non-GMO product is gluten-free and has a blend of unique ingredients that aid in hydration during and after your workout. Each scoop has 1,000 milligrams of coconut water, which is made from a blend that contains the electrolytes potassium, sodium, and manganese.

Specific to this powder is the addition of 1,500 milligrams of vitamin C in every scoop. Vitamin C plays an important role in metabolism and reducing oxidative stress, which can lead to organ and cell damage. There are gaps in research regarding the relationship between vitamin C and resistance training. However, there is evidence to support that exercisers who have low vitamin C intake positively benefit from supplementing with vitamin C. As they bring their vitamin C levels back to within normal levels, they could see an improvement in exercise performance and overall body fatigue. (15)

Although many flavor options are available, some reviewers have found that this powder can be too sour. BCAA Glutamine users have also commented that the smell can sometimes be overwhelming prior to cutting this powder with liquid. This is likely due to Transparent Labs’ reliance on natural sweeteners over artificial sweeteners like sucralose. But honestly, we had to look pretty hard to find any cons about this product.

Best Pre-Workout With BCAAs: Kaged Pre-Kaged


Kaged Pre-Kaged

  • Number of servings: 20
  • Price per serving: $2.25
  • Amount of BCAAs per serving: 6.5 grams
  • Calories per serving: Less than 40 
  • Flavors: Berry Blast, Cherry Bomb, Fruit Punch, Grape, Krisp Apple, Orange Krush, Pink Lemonade
  • Third-party tested: Informed Choice Certified


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Pros

  • Variety of flavor options
  • Contains Spectra Total ORAC Blend and is manufactured with a special blend of other beneficial ingredients not offered by other BCAA powders on the market 
  • High mixability and easily dissolves in many types of liquids 
  • Vegan and vegetarian lifestyle friendly 
  • Informed Sport Certified

Cons

  • More expensive than most other BCAA supplements

Kaged Pre-Kaged may be one of the most expensive products we’ve reviewed. However, we’ve ranked this supplement as the best pre-workout with BCAAs because the quality lives up to its price. The Kaged brand has a fantastic reputation for ensuring its ingredients are tested for purity. They work hard to make sure their products are acceptable for athletes, gluten-free, and non-GMO. Their supplement fact label may be lengthy, but it is packed full of patented ingredients that can help boost your workout.

Per scoop, you’ll get a combination of B vitamins, six grams of BCAAs, 6.5 grams of citrulline, 1.6 grams of beta-alanine, 2.5 grams of betaine, 500 milligrams of coconut water, and 1.5 grams of creatine hydrochloride. Other ingredients that really set this supplement apart are the Spectra Total ORAC Blend, taurine, and tyrosine.

Let’s look harder at two of its ingredients:

  • Creatine hydrochloride: a molecule that can improve lean muscle mass and relative strength and reduce post-workout recovery time. One study found that supplementing with creatine hydrochloride for seven days led to a statistically significant increase in participant strength and endurance. Creatine hydrochloride can also be easier to absorb and digest compared to creatine monohydrate. (16)
  • Spectra Total ORAC Blend: an antioxidative blend of 29 herbs, fruits, and vegetables. The superfoods present in this blend have been linked to building immunity, increasing energy, and improving workout performance. (17)

It’s impressive how overwhelmingly positive reviews are for their flavor, especially when you take into consideration that each scoop has only one gram of sugar and no artificial sweeteners or flavors. Our only issue with this product is how expensive it is compared to others on the market. If you have the money to spend on it though, this high-quality product won’t disappoint.

How We Chose the Best BCAA Supplements

We understand that everyone is different and there are multiple factors to consider before buying dietary supplements. That’s why we strive to provide you with honest, fact-checked reviews to help you make an informed decision about what branched chain amino acid powder will best fit your lifestyle.

In compiling the list above, we selected products with high-quality ingredients and effective doses of BCAAs, so you don’t have to worry that any of them are unsafe. We chose BCAA supplements with a range of prices to fit as many budgets as possible. Since everyone has different reasons for taking BCAAs, we also included options suitable for a variety of goals. Whether you’re looking for support in muscle building, weight loss, or workout recovery, you can find a BCAA supplement above that best fits your needs.

What To Look For When Buying BCAAs

Here at Breaking Muscle, we are accustomed to people having different preferences – especially when it comes to products we ingest. To that effect, we researched the following for each powder: calories, cost, third-party testing, and product formulation. Let’s dive into each of these below.

Formulation

Unlike other dietary supplements, such as the top creatine supplements, BCAA powders tend to have multiple ingredients. The nutrition label is important to review prior to purchase, especially if you have food allergies or intolerances or take medications that certain ingredients may interfere with. Check the product reviews above for mentions of phenylalanine, gluten, soy, and dairy, if there is a specific ingredient you can’t have.

You may also want to look for additional ingredients that may be a driving factor in reaching your overall health and fitness goals, such as glutamine, citrulline, certain vitamins and minerals, and antioxidants.

Price

The cost of any product plays a huge role in your decision-making. The supplements above range from $14 to $45 dollars. You’ll find that more expensive products tend to have more scrutiny in their ingredient selection process, hold certifications regarding purity standards, and have a wider array of ingredients that are meant to bolster your workout recovery.

Keep in mind that many of these products offer options for subscribing and saving, bulk ordering, and first-time customer coupons. If there is a product listed above that you would love to try, check out their website to see if the brand offers affordable options.

Calories

Not everyone has the same fitness goals. You may be looking to lose body weight, gain lean muscle mass, or maintain your current weight. Most BCAA products have less than 40 calories per scoop. However, some BCAA supplements, such as XWERKS Motion, have added carbs that can increase the overall calorie total per scoop.

Integrity

Dietary supplements are not FDA-regulated. One of the best ways to verify product integrity is to determine if it has undergone third-party testing for credibility and ingredient purity. Because dietary supplements do not legally have to be regulated through the FDA, it is important to take third-party testing into consideration when choosing a supplement that will be the best fit for you. You’ll notice that some BCAA powders lack this third-party verification, though there are several, like Huge Supplements BCAAs, that have it.

Third-party testing shows that the manufacturer has taken extra steps to attest to their product’s credibility and ingredient purity. Ensuring your product is third-party verified is especially important for athletes who need to pay special attention to their supplement intake.

What Is the Difference Between BCAAs and Whey Protein?

BCAAs are more readily available from a variety of dietary sources, such as dairy, whole grains, poultry, beef, and plant-based proteins; whereas whey protein is milk derived. Whey protein is a complex molecule, whereas BCAAs are simple, foundational protein builders.

Let’s review a few basic differences between BCAAs and whey protein:

  • BCAAs have a lower caloric load.
  • Whey protein is considered a complete protein, while BCAAs are not.
  • BCAAs are exactly that — only three essential amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine).
  • Whey protein contains both essential and non-essential amino acids. 
  • BCAA supplements have a lower protein load per scoop. 
  • Whey protein could lead to digestive issues due to it being sourced from dairy.
  • BCAA supplements may also lead to digestive issues if they contain artificial ingredients or dietary allergies that some people may be sensitive to.

That said, since BCAAs are typically used as a post-workout supplement, we recommend pairing them with one of the best whey protein powders to assist with muscle growth after your exercise. (18)

What Are the Possible Benefits of BCAAs?

Some of the many benefits of BCAAs include the following:

  • Delayed muscle fatigue and reduction in muscle soreness (1)
  • Increase in muscle mass and overall strength (1)
  • Decreased risk for the development of chronic conditions such as diabetes, cancer, liver cirrhosis, and chronic kidney disease (2)(19)
  • Promotion of wound healing and prevention of muscle wasting (19)
  • Increased recovery rate post-workout (11)

When Is the Best Time to Take BCAAs?

Research supports the ingestion of essential amino acids immediately after and up to two hours post-workout for an increased likelihood of muscle protein synthesis. (20)

Final Thoughts

BCAA’s may help with reducing post-workout muscle fatigue and soreness and improve your overall sports endurance and lean muscle mass. But if you Google “branched-chain amino acid powders,” your page will be flooded with over nine million results. To save you significant time narrowing down the options, we picked the best BCAA powders on the market. To simplify things further, we analyzed the options available for different situations you may encounter on your fitness journey.

Since there are extenuating circumstances for choosing the best BCAA powder for each individual, our goal is to provide you with the research needed to make the right decision. If you have conditions such as celiac disease, lactose intolerance, diabetes, or phenylketonuria, you will find that this review can help guide your decision with ease. If you are unsure of where to start with choosing a BCAA powder, just lean on this review to help lead the way to improved health or consider speaking to a registered dietitian nutritionist about it.

FAQs

What is the most effective BCAA?

There are three branched-chain amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Of the three, leucine has been deemed the most effective for building muscle tissue. However, it works best with the support of isoleucine and valine. That’s one of the reasons you’ll find most BCAA powders are manufactured at a 2:1:1 ratio, with leucine having the highest content per scoop.

Are BCAAs actually effective?

Current evidence-based research does have conflicting outcomes regarding the effectiveness of BCAAs. Studies looking into the therapeutic use of BCAAs for muscle building and the prevention of chronic disease have had different outcomes. As do many experimental research studies. One thing to make note of is that studying these essential amino acids attracts a lot of attention due to their overwhelmingly possible positive side effects.

Is it OK to drink BCAAs every day?

It is okay to use BCAA powder daily if you are vigorously exercising daily for at least 20 minutes. However, research has linked the overconsumption of BCAAs to body weight gain due to reduced ingestion of an appropriate amount of other essential amino acids – namely tryptophan and threonine. (21) Like any dietary supplement, BCAA powders are not intended to serve as meal replacements or substitute consumption of a balanced amount of whole foods.

What are some of the best BCAA supplements?

The best BCAA supplement is going to depend on what your fitness goals are, any underlying medical concerns, and food allergies or intolerances. If we had to pick one, though, our personal favorite is Transparent Labs BCAA Glutamine. A close runner-up is Kaged Pre-Kaged, though it’s a pre-workout with BCAAs and not a BCAA-only supplement.

What are the potential side effects of BCAAs?

Since valine and isoleucine can be converted into glucose, consuming BCAAs could lead to elevated glucose levels. Overconsumption of BCAAs can contribute to an increased risk of developing metabolic syndromes such as diabetes. This is due to the potential effect of BCAAs decreasing insulin sensitivity when consumed inappropriately. Some BCAA powder users may experience gastrointestinal discomfort if they ingest an ingredient that they do not tolerate. (22)

Research

  1. Nie C, He T, Zhang W, et al. Branched chain amino acids: beyond nutrition metabolism. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(4):954. doi: 10.3390/ijms19040954
  2. O’Connell TM. The complex role of branched chain amino acids in diabetes and cancer. Metabolites. 2013;3(4):931-945. doi: 10.3390/metabo3040931
  3. Coqueiro AY, Rogero MM, Tirapegui J. Glutamine as an anti-fatigue amino acid in sports nutrition. Nutrients. 2019;11(4):863. doi: 10.3390/nu11040863
  4. Fruit and pomace extracts: biological activity, potential applications and beneficial health effects: Coconut water: An essential health drink in both natural and fermented forms. Nova Science Publishers, Inc: Limbad MJ, Gutierrez-Maddox N, Hamid N; 2015. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Francesco-Gai-2/publication/271846985_Fruit_and_pomace_extracts_Applications_to_improve_the_safety_and_quality_of_meat_products/links/59e71ee70f7e9b13acac7fea/Fruit-and-pomace-extracts-Applications-to-improve-the-safety-and-quality-of-meat-products.pdf#page=161
  5. Plotkin DL, Delcastillo K, Van Every DW, et al. Isolated leucine and branched-chain amino acid supplementation for enhancing muscular strength and hypertrophy: a narrative review. IJSNEM. 2021;31(3):292-301. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2020-0356
  6. Gogna S, Kaur J, Sharma K, et al. Spirulina – an edible cyanobacterium with potential therapeutic health benefits and toxicological consequences. JANA. 2022. doi: 10.1080/27697061.2022.2103852
  7. Kautzky-Willer A, Harreiter J, Pacini G. Sex and gender differences in risk, pathophysiology and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocr Rev. 2016;37(3):278-316. doi:10.1210/er.2015-1137
  8. Cholewa JM, Wyszczelska-Rokiel M, Glowacki R, et al. Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013;10(1):39. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-39
  9. Deminice R, Ribeiro DF, Frajacomo FT. The effects of acute exercise and exercise training on plasma homocysteine: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2016;11(3):e0151653. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0151653
  10. Bendahan D, Mattei JP, Ghattas B, et al. Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. BJSM. 2002;36:282-289.
  11. Waldron M, Whelan K, Jeffries O, et al. The effects of acute branched-chain amino acid supplementation on recovery from a single bout of hypertrophy exercise in resistance-trained athletes. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017;42(6): 630-636. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2016-0569
  12. Wilburn D, Machek S, Ismaeel A. Highly branched cyclic dextrin and its ergogenic effects in athletes: a brief review. JEN. 2021;4(3). doi:10.53520/jen2021.103100
  13. Newgard CB. Interplay between lipids and branched-chain amino acids in development of insulin resistance. Cell Metab. 2012;15(5):606-614. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2012.01.024
  14. Clamp L, Hume D, Lambert E. et al. Enhanced insulin sensitivity in successful, long-term weight loss maintainers compared with matched controls with no weight loss history. Nutr Diabetes. 2017;7:282. doi: 10.1038/nutd.2017.31
  15. Evans LW, Omaye ST. Use of saliva biomarkers to monitor efficacy of vitamin c in exercise-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants. 2017; 6(1):5. doi:10.3390/antiox6010005
  16. McDonough D. Oral creatine hydrochloride supplementation: acute effects on submaximal, intermittent bouts of bench press and vertical jump exercises. Boise State University Theses and Dissertations. 2017;1348. https://doi.org/10.18122/B2KX4Q
  17. Nemzer BV, Fink N, Fink B. New insights on effects of a dietary supplement on oxidative and nitrosative stress in humans. Food Sci Nutr. 2014;2(6):828-839. doi:10.1002/fsn3.178
  18. Hulmi JJ, Laakso M, Mero AA, et al. The effects of whey protein with or without carbohydrates on resistance training adaptations, J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12(1). doi:10.1186/s12970-015-0109-4
  19. Holeček, M. Branched-chain amino acids in health and disease: metabolism, alterations in blood plasma, and as supplements. Nutr Metab. 2018;15:33. doi:10.1186/s12986-018-0271-1
  20. Kerksick CM, Arent S, Schoenfeld BJ, et al. International society of sports nutrition position stand: nutrient timing. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017;14:(33):29. doi:10.1186/s12970-017-0189-4
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